||Monmouth County (N.J.). County Clerk|
||Census Records, 1850-1915|
||12 cubic feet|
Forms part of the repository's County Clerk's Office subgroup. New Jersey county clerks were responsible (through local assessors) for the compilation of both state and federal censuses.
Federal (1850, 1860, 1870) and state (1855, 1865, 1875, 1895, 1905, 1915) census returns, including additional schedules (1855 and 1865) which were used by Monmouth County for each town's census returns, which were not used by other New Jersey counties. Both types of censuses include list of inhabitants at each dwelling visited by the census taker, with basic statistics about each individual. Federal censuses included additional information concerning births, deaths, slaves and slaveholders, agricultural production, commerce, and other categories.
The 1850-1875 returns were transferred to the repository by Jane G. Clayton, Monmouth County Clerk. The 1895, 1905 and 1915 returns are available on microfilm only. Federal censuses available at all regional branches of the National Archives; state census records held and available on microfilm at New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, N.J. The 1875 Monmouth County census is only available at the repository which also holds the only copy of the 1865 census for Manalapan, N.J. Finding aid and indexes in the repository. The repository also has microfilm of the collection available for public use.
||United States. Census Office|
||Monmouth County (N.J.)--Census|
|Monmouth County (N.J.)--Genealogy|
|County government--New Jersey--Records and correspondence|
|Slaves--New Jersey--Monmouth County|
|Agriculture--New Jersey--Monmouth County|
|Slaveholders--New Jersey--Monmouth County|
|Monmouth County (N.J.)--Commerce|
|Monmouth County (N.J.)--Politics and government|
|Genre or Form:
||Public records--New Jersey--Monmouth County|
||County Clerk's Office|
||12 cubic feet|
I. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY
In 1790, the Federal government ordered the first census of every citizen in the United States. Thereafter, a census was to be compiled every ten years. It was not until 1855 that the New Jersey General Assembly decided to establish a separate State Census through "An Act in relation to the census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the state," approved March 24, 1855. The 1855 Act also stated a State Census was to be compiled every tenth year, hereafter.
According to the Act, County Clerks were to distribute blank census forms to the assessor in each town or township. Completed forms and a duplicate copy, prepared by each Assessor for his town, were then returned to the County Clerk's office. It was the responsibility of the County Clerk to deliver each duplicate to the Secretary of State and to file the originals in the Clerk's office.
Both the Federal and State censuses from 1850 to 1870 employed Schedule I, a list of the inhabitants by each dwelling visited by the census taker, with basic data about each individual. Federal censuses also included additional schedules with information concerning births, deaths, slaves and slave owners, agricultural production, industry, mining, commerce, and social statistics for the census year. Over the years, new schedules were added while others were eliminated.
In 1855 and 1865, additional schedules were not included with State censuses. But, in 1875, Monmouth County employed four additional schedules for each town's census returns. According to records in the State Archives, Monmouth was the only county to use these supplemental schedules.
II. SCOPE AND CONTENT
The Census Record series covers the period 1850 to 1915. Both Federal census returns (1850, 1860, 1870) and State census returns (1855, 1865, 1875, 1895, 1905 and 1915) are included within the series. The 1895, 1905 and 1915 returns, which were purchased from the New Jersey State Archives, are available on microfilm only. The County Archives does not hold the original censuses for these years.
The Census Records series is available on microfilm and is arranged chronologically by year and alphabetically by town within years. Researchers should also be aware of a related record series, the 1880 Enumeration, for which a separate finding aid is available.
Computer indexes, by name, are also available for the 1875 State Census and the 1880 Enumeration.
The following provides a guide to each census, indicating the town returns available at the Monmouth County Archives; and towns not available for research due to the poor condition of the records.
Howell, Marlborough, Middletown, Millstone, Ocean, Raritan, Upper Freehold
not available: Freehold
Marlboro, Manalapan, Atlantic, Freehold, Ocean, Howell, Middletown, Millstone, Raritan, Shrewsbury, Wall, Upper Freehold
Atlantic, Freehold, Holmdel, Shrewsbury, Wall
not available: Howell, Manalapan, Marlboro, Matawan, Middletown, Millstone, Ocean, Upper Freehold
Holmdel, Manalapan, Millstone, Raritan, Shrewsbury
not available: Middletown, Ocean
Freehold, Keyport-Raritan, Middletown, Upper Freehold, Wall
not available: Manalapan, Ocean, Shrewsbury
Atlantic, Freehold, Holmdel, Howell, Marlboro, Middletown, Ocean, Shrewsbury, Upper Freehold, Wall,
not available: Manalapan, Matawan, Millstone, Raritan
Atlantic Township to Wall Township
Allenhurst to Wall Township
Allenhurst to West Long Branch
The last table in this finding aid provides additional locations, the New Jersey State Archives in Trenton and all Regional Branches of the National Archives, where census records also are held and are available on microfilm. The table indicates years available at each of these locations. Note that the State Archives holds nearly complete censuses for Monmouth County from 1850 to 1880. In addition, the Monmouth County Archives holds the 1865 census for Manalapan, which is not at the State Archives.
||N.J. STATE ARCHIVES|
The Monmouth County portion of the 1875 State census is one of the few New Jersey counties to have survived. For many years, the entire state-wide 1875 census, with the exception of three other incomplete counties, had been considered lost forever. However, in the mid-1990s, the Monmouth County Archives uncovered the long lost County Clerk's copy which included nine of the fourteen townships. While all the pages for Shrewsbury Township have survived, the pages were in extremely poor condition. In 2002, the Monmouth County Genealogical Society offered to fund the extensive restoration of the Shrewsbury pages. Only through the restoration process were we able to abstract many of the individuals listed on the pages. Unfortunately, most of the damage occurred on the top portion of every page so, in most cases, the first five names were lost. Every effort was made to abstract as much information as possible.
Abstracting the names and information was also very difficult throughout Ocean Township due to the poor handwriting and spelling of the names by the then Township Assessor. Mr. Bennett had little problem with the old Monmouth County family names but had great difficulty with most, if not all, of the new immigrant families who were coming to Monmouth County.
In June 2008, the Monmouth County Open Public Records System created a searchable, online version of Monmouth County 1875 census for the convenience of researchers (Manalapan, Matawan, Millstone & Raritan Townships ARE MISSING AND NOT INCLUDED). You can visit the online census at http://oprs.co.monmouth.nj.us/oprs/Archives/ASearch.aspx
A complete computer index is available in the Monmouth County Archives and is arranged alphabetically by last name. The index does not include all the data included in the actual census but is only an aid in finding a given individual.
The index provides:
The New Jersey State Archives also has a copy of the microfilm and computer index.
Page Last Updated: 11/21/2011 10:42:00 AM